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  1. Maggie and the Master | Sarah Fisher | Vearsa | | E-Sentral Ebook Portal
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Wicked Fall Wicked Horse Book 1. Never in your wildest dreams could you begin to imagine all the filthy and depraved things that go on inside The Wicked Horse. Step inside and Woolf Jennings will make every one of your dirty fantasies come true. But only a privileged few truly understand what fuels the glitter of depravity in those gorgeous blue eyes. Sweet Callie Hayes has returned home to Wyoming and is looking forward to starting her life over again. Now Woolf is seeing that Callie is all grown up and has a kinky side to her that leaves him as confused as it does turned on.

Lots of sex. Dirty sex. Morrigan has been divorced for a year after leaving her cheating husband. But sex? No damn way. When she goes home for thanksgiving, she checks out a local club the first night she meets a hot young stud, the second night she meets another handsome guy, and another. She finds out the three guys are friends, and they want her to choose between them, but she can't. She wants all of them. All the above. Life is short and being with someone new is so reviving, so good. Spanking Submission Island Book 1. A smart, curvy woman who needs to change her life.

A mature, defended dom. An island BDSM resort full of secrets. Spanking is a character-driven novelette focused on a woman's pleasure, male dominance, and sadomasochism. Cleo discovers she can experience the complete fulfillment of her secret desires. She has only to ask. A joking email from my favorite co-worker leads me to a naughty site. Submission Island offers a free, all-expenses paid vacation at a Caribbean resort for qualified women. It doesn't seem likely the exclusive resort would accept a curvy, twenty-eight year-old with limited kinky experience.

The application reads like a menu for perversion. I click off the Yes, No, Maybe activities and upload my most appealing lingerie photo. Hell, I need a vacation full of sex with no ties except the ones that get undone after a happy ending. I'll roll with what happens without thinking too much so I don't lose my nerve. This time, I'll go after having my erotic dreams come true.


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I can do this. Something happens when you face your deepest desires. You change. You can't turn back. I think a spanking will be safe. My heart pounded. I stopped on the threshold, staring into the shadows. I smelled leather. I bit my lip. It took all my willpower to shut the door on the relative safety of the hall that led to the exit. This was my one room for today.

I let go of my fantasy that this was going to be a non-threatening experience. The imposing figure of the man in the shadows was threatening as hell. He had the bulk of a boxer, yet a refined profile. His ear, the one part of him illuminated, would have fit on a bust of the emperor Caesar.

Maggie and the Master | Sarah Fisher | Vearsa | | E-Sentral Ebook Portal

He had a neat beard, not one of those chin scruff things, a real man's beard. My Surprise Gender-Swap. Jerry is about to embark on the best night of his life. The CEO of his company, Daniel Larsen, has chosen him, low-on-the-totem-pole Jerry, to come to his gala as a special guest! And all Jerry has to do in exchange is be part of a simple demonstration for a new machine that Mr. Larsen is working on. A ten-second demonstration, Mr. Larsen had said.

In and out, and you'll be back to the party before you know it. Jerry couldn't possibly refuse such a tempting offer. The choice was easy. Jerry agreed, and then he was off to rent a tux and prepare himself for the big night. What Jerry doesn't know is that Mr. Larsen lied.

The machine he's working on is far from simple, and he knows that it works. This is the final test of it before he shows it to the world--a machine that can change genders! One trip through, and you come out the other side a completely different person. Jerry expects to come out the other side of this gala living the high life and making valuable connections.

But the night is going to take him in a completely different direction. Will he like it? Or will it be too much for him?

Naughty Naughty Series Book 1. Alex Conrad knows that the girl across the hall looks familiar, but he just can't place her…until she shoots THAT smile at him. Lexie Gill, the nerdy, bespectacled girl from college whom Alex often fantasized about but never managed to make those dreams a reality. He had been pretty damned sure he'd be too much for her back then, and he's sure as hell he'd be too much for her now. But now with her messy blonde hair, short blue dress revealing legs he had never set eyes on before, and the strapless bodice showing off her incredible tan, he's tempted to try this time around to make his fantasies a reality.

Part of him knows why he should stay away from her — his hidden desires may be too much for her to handle. But the yearning to teach her about his world is a challenge too mouthwatering to ignore. This ebook contains very hot and explicit descriptions of romantic activity. Only mature readers should download this book. A sensual, erotic story with the rich texture of Regency romance with the spice of erotica.

Margaret Seymour is bored by the stifling constraints of society dictating her behavior as a debutante in search of a husband. Her prospects are promising by the standards of London society, yet, not one of them causes her heart to flutter, or her head to fill with scintillating, forbidden fantasies. His promise of a night of pleasure is tempting, but is it worth it when Avonleah is a known rake notorious for his short attention span and avoidance of marriage?

Camden Rycroft is intrigued by the masked vixen he encounters in the Gardens. After one night with her leaves him hungry for more, his desire for her turns into a fiery obsession. Despite the scandal that could ensue from their affair, he finds himself unable to extract himself from a situation destined to end in pain. When faced with losing Margaret to a potential husband, will he rise to the occasion, or risk living without her?

An out of place college student who feels completely alone in her world, Marie Damascus answers an ad posted online requesting the help of a maid. When she discovers her potential employer, Adrian Capitoline, is the man of every woman's dreams—a sexy, mysterious, billionaire—she thinks she's encountered a miracle. She's quick to become his live-in maid, and delighted when a sizzling romance begins to develop between the two of them.

Until night falls, and Marie must learn that even the gentlest man has a beast—and that she might very well like it. As Marie fully embraces the nature of her sexual awakening with the man of her dreams she soon finds that she must come to terms with her desires for the monster within him. At the hands of a beast so powerful, she finds herself helpless, and can't manage to admit to herself how much she loves it.

Fully embracing her life with both sides of her lover: in control during the day and losing it each night, she revels in her erotic relationship with her employer. But when Adrian questions her strength of conviction, she decides to take her power back in the same way the wolf has taken it from her. What others are saying: "If you have a sexual fantasy then it's probably acted out. My eyes were glued to the pages and my hand was over my mouth and I had to read most pages twice. It was pretty awesome. The characters are fantastic!. You will love this sweet, touching, kinky and erotic book!

The characters are people, you can relate with even if you aren't a wolf. The Boys are Back in Town James is a Dom. Michael loves women. When the two become unlikely friends, they form a team, working the clubs and enjoying a carefree bachelor existence. Until, one day, James is offered an unusual opportunity: to Buy A Virgin Explicit adult content. The Sister-in-Law Submissive. Mark has secretly lusted after his Sister-in-Law Trish for the last ten years. She's got the body of a supermodel but treats Mark and his wife with the self-righteous arrogance of an affluent, religious MILF housewife.

But all that's about to change - Mark has caught Trish in an act of infidelity and now she will need to concede to his demands or be exposed as the promiscuous hypocrite she is. But just how far is Trish willing to go to protect her secret? More from Sylvia Redmond! The Fertility Clinic amazon. I've just been given to a new alien. He's the third one in two days. This purple skinned alien isn't as dangerous and scary looking as the others and he smells delicious.

I have to fight my strange attraction to him because I know looks can be deceiving. As his scent surrounds me, I feel safe, but should I? His power of drawing me in is surprising. The heat he's causing to course through me makes me want to mate him. I don't understand my feelings for him. Fear of the unknown has me longing to rewind time and not be kidnapped by aliens. I look up into his diamond shaped blue irises and see kindness.

My heart lurches as hope and passion flare within me. Not even a cute one. My work comes first. That's why I'm surprised when I'm inexplicably drawn to the little human my brother brought to me. Something in her pretty eyes intrigues me. She needs a bath, some healing, and a good meal. After all of her needs have been met, I'll decide what to do with my distracting gift. My brain says she should be set free.

My heart wants to keep her safe and sound. My body wants to mate her. The only logical thing to do is keep her for a few days and see which of my desires wins. This is a smokin' story so it's for adults only! A humorous and fun read. Scroll up and grab your copy today! Okay, so that was a lie. I did think about it.

A lot. I imagined what a man like that could do to me, wondered how he could make me feel. So I fantasized and I teased and I flirted. And it worked. Mercy: A Dark Erotica. I did my best to shelter the reader at the more abusive parts while bringing to life this story of darkness meeting mercy, who is a woman named Mercy, in this story. So read with caution. All Mercy wants is to walk in her father's footsteps--a man who sacrificed everything to save her from a life of abuse and suffering. When Mercy finds an envelope on her doorstep leading her to Sade, the result is a collision of pain and mercy.

For Sade, Mercy's kindness is dessert for his sadism, and her strength has his masochism hot and begging. Exploiting both for his own pleasure is his plan until he realizes that Mercy's got her own love bites game. And playing it requires something he's never had. Praise for Lust on the High Seas 'hard to find erotic novels with this level of depth I really appreciate you picking up my books, purchasing them, and reviewing them! It's only due your backing that I'm able to give away the fourth book in the series, and continue growing my catalogue!

In this episode: The year is , and Will Sharpe, a cabin boy aboard a trading ship bound for India, is about to face his initiation. Will has no idea what his initiation might entail, and no one will tell him anything, except that he will be subjected to unspeakable acts. While his looming initiation keeps Will's mind occupied, stern Captain Storm intends to ensure that the other offices find Will satisfactory, in more than just his duties aboard the ship! In the meantime, the beautiful blond-haired Jon Dark struggles against his jealousy at all the attention Will is receiving.

He wants Will all to himself, and even though he knows Will can't help his attraction to other men he still intends to try and make Will all his. Featuring oral and back door encounters, multiple partners and a smattering of romance, Claimed By The Crew is intended for mature audiences. Join Will Sharpe as he embarks on another series of delicious gay encounters! Excerpt: If I was expecting the space or opulence of the Captain's Quarters, I would have been disappointed.

Arrow's room is not much bigger than the small bed that occupies it and contains no other furniture but a tiny desk, with a small cupboard built beneath it. I do so, and when I turn back, he is glaring at me with his hands on his hips. I want you now. I cannot believe this beautiful man wants me so much. Jon rushes to me and takes my face in his hands, gazing deeply into my eyes.

He slides his hands into my brown hair, and his fingers tighten around my locks as he pulls my face towards his. His mouth descends onto mine, and he kisses me roughly, hungrily, working his lips and his tongue with his pent-up need. He smells of the sea.

Pressed together, our stiff - touch each other through our breeches, and I groan into Jon's mouth. Now,' I say. Jon moans too, as he hears his own words spoken back to him. He pulls away from me and tears his shirt over his head, discarding it on the bed. I follow behind, pulling my shirt off in a rush and throwing it atop Jon's. We both take a moment to appreciate each other. Jon is panting, his eyes wide with desire. He has a beautiful body, lithe and lean, with wide shoulders, a rippling stomach and unblemished pale skin. I am taller, darker, thicker. He smiles.

It is perfect, like him. Other Books in this series are: 1. Claimed By The Captain Free 2. Caught Between Two Men 3. Both At Once. From Award-Winning author A. WDITD features eight sexy alpha-male heroes in an erotic anthology you absolutely need. Each chapter covers several genres, from Urban Fiction to High Fantasy and beyond; each with a Paranormal twist. With Shapeshifting bears, Dragons and the Devil himself, Paranormal erotica reaches an all new sexual high in this anthology. Where will you be when night falls?

While she longs to return to her human life, she can't deny the attraction she has to the demon lord, nor can she keep her hands to herself. That is, until she summons up a demon one drunken college night. Dominic Hemlocke works as her family's dutiful butler, but he's much more interested in serving Mistress Eleanor in a more personal manner. Afraid of damaging her father's reputation, she hesitates, but she can't deny the draw of all the debauch and carnal pleasures Dominic can offer her. But who says you can't have your cake and eat it too? But it isn't HER well-being she's worried about.

Beloved girlfriend of Dragon-Shifter and mafia brat Jackson Casella, she knows it's only a matter of time before pays the man a visit. She's hoping that a good romp on the kitchen counter will keep him occupied but, knowing her Jackson, Mr. Tatum's days are numbered. But even Witches have to pay rent and her wallet is running thin. As her familiar, Valerian wants to please her, but old Wiccan standards keep her from taking him up on his offer.

With her landlord breathing down her neck and a shape-shifting cat who can't keep his hands out of her pants, what's a girl to do except indulge? Karmen is a sassy Hellmouth who doesn't know how to keep her big mouth shut. To Michael the Archangel they're a match made in heaven, but Franz knows better than anyone how quickly his darker tendencies could land them both in a heap of trouble. But she's so damn tempting, and he can't seem to keep his tongue out of places it shouldn't rightfully be.

Her only hope? A Vampire. Having sworn off blood, his hunger is a constant reminder of his sin, and the closer they get the more he craves it. She wants to survive no matter what, even if it means feeding her Vampire protector. But when danger looms near and hunger turns into lust, the two are ensnared by ancient magic and a passion neither of them is willing to understand, or deny. When her hunting party is killed and she is blamed, she volunteers to pay off the Goblin King and keep her people safe from their wrath.

Her crush, Were-Bear Iain, joins her. Fully intent on keeping her safe, he finds the girl he always viewed as a child was a fierce huntress who wouldn't stop until she got what she wanted. And he was on the menu. When he finds her in a cafe in the heart of New York City, he takes her to their home in Italy. But Cat has no memory of being a wolf, not to mention a mate with a growl that makes her weak in the knees.

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When they make love, sparks fly, but will their reunion be enough to break an ancient spell? Or will his Isabella forever be lost to a saucy waitress with a Jersey accent? Bad Billionaire Bad Billionaires Book 1. A mechanic. A getaway driver. A thief. I was born on the streets, and I like it rough — life, sex, everything.

My job is dirty. My past is dirty. So is my future. Find the woman who gave me one unforgettable night before I went down. The woman who is too good for me. The woman I can never have. Find her. Get revenge on the man that hurt her. And make her mine. Entangled Book One Entangled Series 1. Taking the General Manager position at Reid Vineyard's new restaurant would give me the experience I need, the only thing lacking on my resume.

Meeting someone like Lucas Reid wasn't part of my plan Emma:Lifting my glass to my lips, I take a sip feeling Lucas watching me. I feel as if my heart is about to pound out of my chest as I allow the liquid to lay on my tongue for a moment. He's holding his glass at the base of the stem and then it is my turn to watch as he slowly swirls the liquid before lifting the glass to inhale the bouquet before taking a tiny sip, allowing it to roll around on his tongue. I imagine that tongue roving over my body, tasting and sampling me. Lost in the image before me, I watch as he swallows, his strong jawline on display with his hair pulled back for his evening jog.

I see sweat clinging to the base of his throat and my mouth waters again, wanting desperately to taste him. Logan and Lauren: A Valentine's Special. You might have to wait a few days before you download. Blurb:When Logan comes home from work after a week from hell, he has only one thing on his mind: Lauren, butt-ass naked and ready for him. But that's not what he finds.

He's forgotten all about the damn party they have to attend, and instead of his ready and willing wife, he finds her dolled-up and primed to leave. Well, hell, he's not too worried, though. He'll have to change his usual mode of operation, but that's okay, seducing Lauren is always a good thing. I start work and he notices me straight away, inviting me to secret, sexy party where he shows me the time of my life. But is he hiding an insidious secret? He drives me crazy like no other man has ever done. But I have a secret… Will it scare him away? Or will it turn him on even more?

Readers should be 18 and over due to mature situations and language. Simply Smut. Heavenly Hunks. Carnal Desires. Dating Mrs. Genre: Fiction, Erotica Size: 1. Transformed Into a Cougar Too. Two new gender swap stories! In "The Hunt" a businessman fires his aging secretary only to wake up the next morning as a woman just like her! Now he has two weeks to find some young stud to marry him or be stuck this way forever! And in "The Hunger" a teenage boy is picked up by an older woman, only to wake up the next morning as a middle-aged woman who is part of a clan of vampires! Now he has to make love to young men or else fade away to dust!

Could she really do it A brand new serial aimed at couples. All 4 parts of Season One are in Kindle Unlimited and are available now. It started with a simple mistake: my gorgeous wife, mistaken for a high-class call girl. But that planted a fantasy in our minds and, the more we talked about it, the more we both wanted to know--what if she actually did it?

It was a hell of a turn on for both of us. But could I really watch her take off her wedding ring and put on a short dress, stockings and heels, and pick up men in the hotel bar? Could I really watch from the closet as she stripped off and parted her thighs for them? How would I feel, seeing another man take her As she accepted her first client, would our relationship be destroyed A few days of solitude, hiking along picturesque Bear Mountain is just what he thinks he needs to move on. The two male owners. Carson has never been attracted to a man, and he fights the sensation tooth and nail.

Royce and Jared know their mate as soon as he walks in the door of the main lodge. The shifters have just three days before the human is scheduled to go home. Ever since Alexis Newman was young, she knew her path in life, but to get to the top you have to start from the bottom. With no man in her life, she sets out with her best friend to dance her frustrations away.

Catching the eye of the crusaders MC resident assassin was definitely not in her life plans. Cobra is not the type of alpha you read about, he's not romantic, he doesn't date, he doesn't care. His life is all about protecting his club, doing whatever necessary. That all changes when he spots her across the club. She sparks something in him.

Ice cold Cobra starts wondering whether he can have a happily ever after but at what cost? Setting his sight on love was not his life plan. With war brewing between the crusaders and their rivals, the hell riders, there is danger lurking around every corner. Will Cobra bring Alexis to the dark side? Or walk away forever? Will Alexis give up her perfect life plan for an unknown future? Decision time. Head or heart? Life, love or death? With sexual content and violence not suitable for younger readers. When Gia Lopez signs up for the Submissive's Wish Charity Auction she has no idea that she's about to be bought by a Russian Dom who will do anything to make her fantasies come true.

Including staging an elaborate kidnapping that Gia believes is real. Ivan is instantly drawn to Gia and he wants to be the best Master she's ever had. As he spends time with Gia he begins to have intense feelings for the strong, independent, and sexy American woman. He's only won a week of her service but wishes to keep her forever. All she wants is to settle down with a nice Dom in the United States, continue her career, and live a normal life. However, Ivan sets a plan into motion that will push Gia to all of her limits and take her on a global journey of self-discovery, extreme pleasure, and love.

The heroine, Julia, has nothing but disdain for the impossibly sexy, Derek, when they first meet. He's an arrogant, spoiled playboy who seems to catch Julia at every turn in humiliating and compromising situations. As the mystery unfolds, Julia and Derek are thrown together and sparks fly. Ultimately, they not only find the answers they are searching for, but much more than they ever expected. Part One At the request of Jackson Vaughn himself, Julia has been working at the billionaire's estate for weeks. In all the time she's been there, she has never run into a single soul besides staff.

One day, after showering off at the poolside cabana, Julia discovers her clothes missing. Her timing couldn't be worse, because today there's a special visitor. This story is intended for an adult audience only! I was so lucky to get adopted. My birth family was terrible to me, and my new family plucked me off the streets just in the nick of time. I was even luckier to end up with twin stepbrothers, two gorgeous hunks who I managed to annoy every summer at our family's cabin by the lake. But now that we're all adults, I'm not interested in playing pranks.

I'm interested in playing an entirely different game This summer, fun in the sun with my stepbrothers can only mean one thing: a taboo tryst that none of us will soon forget. Scout Sniper: Gay Military Erotica. John was in a special sniper program based in Georgia. Men and women are developing awesome powers with the potential t People always told Akantha what was expected of her.

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Let us begin with the lowest class — the serfs. Poor, miserable, utterly ignorant, worked to the bone, with their faces ground by poverty, the lives of this class were certainly nasty , brutish and short. It is no wonder then that there were frequent infractions of virtue among them. Here the church exercised its greatest effect but even here its success was slight. Chastity, continence, fidelity, were all too infrequent, and again and again we shall meet literary testimony to these evil conditions.

Language was foul and coarse and there was a fierce delight in unmitigated ribaldry. Girls and boys lost their virginity very young — and hence they were married off as early as possible but not always in time, in spite of the hurry. The girls were continually at the mercy of the men of the upper classes, and pity the pretty or shapely one especially. Life was short and difficult — so sin was not infrequent, but the confessional made restitution.

The poor had their own brothels, and divers other forms of amusement of a similar nature. Early they developed the coarse presentations which were combinations of miracle play and farce. The life of the poor was then what it has always been. The general uncertainty of life, combined with the vast and fairly unchecked power of the king, and to a lesser degree of his nobles, set the pace for their life.

It is no wonder that they led licentious lives which occasionally assumed titanic proportions. We shall read later of the sumptuous gatherings of high born ladies and men where the foulest talk circulated; and of the almost unbelievable richness and pomp of some of their orgies in which were enacted in the flesh, by living actors, the most intimate and passionate scenes. Again, one motive for the ItaUan invasion of Charles viii was his desire for Italian women, and as we shall see later, he has left us vivid records of his incredible exploits with the winsome daughters of Latium.

But, we are inclined to ask, what of knighthood? Surely there was a portion of medieval society which was different, was resplendent in its purity and high ideality. Unfortunately we discover to our great disillusionment that this institution was ridden by numerous foul and vicious elements; that very early whatever nobility there may have been in knighthood disappeared, and the service of wo- man became pretty confined to one area or function of the woman.

If the knight did battle for the lady and went to extravagant lengths in his ostentatious fidelity to her, like wearing a lock of her hair, it was for a purpose. This lock of hair was not infrequently plucked from his lady's mons veneris as we shall see later. This institution ultimately gave rise to such ugly and pervasive abuses that it had to perish. In connection with knighthood and the service of women a word should be said about the medieval cult of love which found its ex- pression in the Minnesingers. These songs composed by trouba- dours and less frequently by knights, are part of the witness to the importance of woman and the strength of love even in the middle ages.

As we shall learn the tone of these songs is none too exalted and the most passionate praises are sung to the physical beauties of the beloved, and particularly to her sexual attractions. A most inter- esting and unusual feature of the middle ages were the so-called courts of love. Here tournaments of words are supposed to have taken place in connection with questions of love. Or to vary the image, and to bring out the full meaning of the title, certain ques- tions of the love life, occasionally ideal, but more generally very obscene, were argued as though before a court; and at the close of the "litigation", a verdict was rendered.

These decisions were fre- quently later embodied in the actual life of the given groups among whom the "court" had been held. But if knighthood was not all a flower, the church was not all a cloud of sacred incense. Indeed, it would appear as though the most consistent and violent transgressions in the sphere of sex were com- mitted by those appointed to preach sanctity and exemplify it. The idleness, power, and ignorance of the priests combined with their unexampled hold upon their flock due to their status, gave them an unlimited field for the exercise of their lusts.

Outside of the church and within it, the minds and bodies of many of the church's servi- tors served not the Christ but Priapus. Priests were known as vigor- ous lovers and were sought after because of their prowess and discretion. Indeed all doors were opened to them. Their churches were occasionally even decorated with indecent pictures; and the monasteries and nunneries were the homes of the most indiscrimi- nate perversions. Many cloisters were virtually brothels. The sup- pression upon the sexual instinct of its clergy that the church had sought to enforce in its injunction of celibacy proved a boomerang.

Not only was the body not conquered but the soul was frequently lost. Hence it is no wonder that the priest became the target of the most vitriolic criticism and condemnation. His immoral life was an outrage to any moral sensibility and when there was so much to lash, we must not be surprised at the quantity of anti-clerical litera- ture or its intensity. This was one of the dominant motifs of medie- val erotic literature and has lasted into modem times. Another and related theme was anti-royalism.

The life of king and court was also soaked in pornographic lubricity and its putridity stank to the dis- tant clouds. The incessant and multiple erotic diligence and appli- cation, the insatiability, cruelty, and folly of king and noble was at the base of the mass of anti-royalist writing. Another motif, and in- deed one that was prior to the ones just mentioned, was that con- nected with the Virgin Mary. This innocent Mariolatry was, as we shall presently discover,strangely intertwined with erotical elements of all sorts, some of them rather shocking.

Indeed, from being the symbol of immaculateness and pure unsullied mother love she occas- ionally became the patron saint of unchastity. This transformation is interesting in correlation with the decay in the service of women noted in connection with knighthood. What is most striking in many medieval writings is the utter disrespect for women, the un- speakably low estimate of the whole female sex, who are representa- tive of all that is base and wicked in human nature. This notion, partly derived from experience, partly also from the low status of woman, was however to a great measure influenced by the circula- tion, at this time, of a whole cycle of Buddhist stories.

In these of course, the poor female of the species is nothing but a sinner and a snare for the entire race of men. Let us say a word now about the literary forms of medieval France in which these records of her erotic life are preserved. A good number of these were distinctive of that period and have not survived it, while others have been transmitted but have assumed different forms. We will content ourselves with a mere mention of them here, and leave their explanation and illustration for the next two chapters. There are the fabliau the tale , the farce, the tensor the report of the court of love the dramatized farce, the chanson lyric and brothel poetry, and the chronique scandaleuse.

One final remark about the progress of medieval French erotic literature. As we first find it we see something primitive, coarse, un- differentiated. In the early periods there are few genres, and in the very earliest but one, the fabliaux, aside from the panurgic anecdote which circulates among the people. These are rough, rude, and have no adumbration of artistic skill. As time goes on and culture becomes somewhat more differentiated, more genres develop and every type in turn becomes refined and hence amenable to artistic treatment.

During the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries, under the influence of the troubadours and knightly gallantry, much is achieved. Poetry is developed to a high degree and even becomes precious and affected. The lyric poetry of the fifteenth century shows sophistication and already gives finished expression to satire. It is useful to remember, although it is not entirely relevant in this connection, that in this century syphilis began to ravage Europe, fixing men's minds to the realm of sex as never before, and giving literature many new themes both in tragedy and in satirical comedy.

By the end of this century all the genres of the medieval period have been invented and are in active currency. Thus the fifteenth century can also show an admirably simple and genuinely homely lyricism in Villon for example. The gradual growth of cities and the rise of the middle class created a need for a new type of writing more suited to the activities of this group. The highfalutin, pampered, precious gallantry of knightly writing was no longer to the taste of these groups, for it corresponded to nothing in their hfe.

In the sixteenth century we see by the side of the romance of gallantry like Amadis with its false sentimentality, erotic produc- tions that are lyric, naturalistic, coarse and finished — in short, eroti- cism that covers the whole range of the field. The foulest brothel poetry was to be found, but also the most deUcate and tender emotional depictions; earnest reflectiveness and lewd buffoonery both were to be met in the extensive erotic literature of the century.

And this plethora of works with all the anti-clerical and anti-royalist broadsides and bawdy outlines of sex continued into the seventeenth century. The growth and development of all these types was of course only a reflection in letters of the intensity and development of the actual erotic life in France. We now turn to the history of this life as reflected in these literary forms.

THE literature of the middle ages is undoubtedly much beholden to the formation and propagation of the legends clustering around the Virgin. The immaculate conception, in particular, occu- pied the medieval poets considerably. One gets this impression not merely from the frequency with which this matter is referred to, but also from the intensity of the efforts many of the poets display in espousing and establishing their belief. To what extremes this ado- ration of the Virgin could go, may be surmised from the fact that the monks of the Order of Mary drank up dish water and licked the afflicted parts of lepers in order to show their reverence for their saint.

Mary first appears in the old French fabliaux and jokes as the guardian of virginity; but she frequently also comes to the aid of those who have gotten into difficulties of their own making. Thus, one of the fabliaux tells of a woman who is surprised by her husband as she sports with a cleric. The latter dashes out of bed and hides. When the husband lies down beside his wife she jumps out of bed and simulates insanity, all the while invoking the virgin; while the deceived husband seeks to calm the apparently hysterical wife, the cleric departs.

Although Mary is everywhere represented as the guardian of virginity, there is one story of an abbess famed for her piety, chasti- ty and service to Mary, who has become pregnant. The night before delivery she fervently implores the help of the Virgin to save her from the impending shame; whereupon the former accompanied by two angels comes and delivers the abbess, keeping her body in- tact, and then leaves the child with a hermit. There are other stories in which the Virgin aids in illegitimate enterprises, notably the one of Caeser of Heisterbach in which she substitutes herself for the lady superior who is leading a whore's life outside the cloister.

The aid of the Virgin is invoked in many other needs and distress- es: The young priest who has fallen in love with a young girl calls up- on Mary to help him in his suit; and the lover abandoned by his love, prays for a change of heart in the beloved, or offers his love to Mary who is faithful and never deceives a lover. In this feeling there are many sensual elements as numerous fabliaux will attest collected in the book of Coincy. Thus Mary reproaches a young priest who has been unfaithful to her and reminds him that for love of him she can open the heavens and admit him to her private chambers where a rich bed holds great pleasures of love in store for them.

Or when a pious sacristan desires to kiss her feet she presents her face instead. Or when a young priest slips a ring on the finger of a statue of Mary but becomes unfaithful to her, she soon permits herself to be won back for ever, despite her jealousy. In these instances the mother of God is entirely divested of her divinity and is regarded merely as the loving, yielding woman. This conception is rooted in the amalgamation of earthly and heavenly love, whose essential characteristics are its duality, and the exclusion of any other loves. Man cannot love earthly and heavenly beings at the same time; if he chooses the latter, then there is an end to loving the daughters of men.

Mary takes com- plete possession of the lover's emotions and for that reason she con- centrates upon herself not merely the heavenly, but also the earthly Comparatively early, however, certain frivolous elements ap- peared by the side of this reverence for Mary. Faithless women invoked her as witness to their "innocence", and the formulas were more than coarse. In the church poems of Jesuit Jacob Pontanus, the poet can think of nothing more beautiful in Mary than her breasts, nothing sweeter than her milk, nothing more excellent than her belly.

It is easy to understand the great reverence in which she was held when one realizes her utter readiness to help even in the most diffi- cult situations — a fact continually taught by the priests. Indeed when only a simple prayer was necessary to avoid unpleasant con- sequences and to snap one's fingers at righteousness, every man and woman really received a charter of license. It is well known that the later comic poets, especially those of Italy and Germany, owe much to the French fabliaux, which exercised great influence and inspired a very large number of de- rivative works.

What is a fabliau? Pilz defines it as the poetic rep- resentation of an adventure that takes place within bounds of normal Hfe. It belongs to the class of epic, or epic-didactic poetry, and its chief aim is to amuse and to arouse laughter. It is this gen- eral character which is indicated by the designations employed by poets to characterize their works, viz: une trufe, une boiirde, une risee, un gab.

Later on a moral was gradually added. With few ex- ceptions they are composed in octosyllabic rhymed couplets. They are the poetry of the rising citizenry as opposed to the ideals of the courdy-sentimental poetry. Three elements have participated in their formation: the stream of Oriental stories with their Buddhistic ideal of the contempt of women, the low status of the minstrels, and the moral decadence of the clergy.

The Buddhistic conception denied woman every right and per- sonal dignity, regarding her as the inescapable burden of man. She it is who keeps him in the bondage of sensuality and thus prevents him from achieving the true life. Its pronounced ascetic character inclines to emphasize the virtues of celibacy.

These notions reap- pear in the fabliaux verses in their low valuation of marriage and in their tendency to attribute every fiasco and error of the man to the woman. The motives that actuated the low-born minstrels, to whose sa- tiric streak many a fabliau owes its existence, can scarcely be called noble. Ostentation, combined with the poverty of the singers and the hope for jingling rewards if they would flatter the opinions of their audiences, supplied ample material for laughter. This re- sulted in a conscious effort to pander to the demands of their pub- lic which demanded amusement and which was beginning to feel a definite antipathy to the knightly ideal of reverence for women.

Furthermore, the disrespect of women is also to be attributed to the disastrous influence of the clergy from whose pens so many fabliaux flowed; celibacy, too, and its consequences were subject matter for satire. A rude peasantry as yet untouched by refined culture tends to seek amusement in relating the occurrences of everyday life, since they still lack what seem to us to be higher interests. These tales treat of the most natural things, and they always excite the laugh- ter of the ignorant peasant whose greatest joy is to play a joke or tell about it later.

This hearty and even pleasant tone so common in German jokes despite their coarseness is alien to the Frenchman who toys with everything, titters over everything, is always on the lookout for the humorous and pursues it relentlessly with a measure of pride in his own superiority. Yet he is not malicious; he is merely light and frivolous. Thus he laughs at the stupid hus- band who has had horns conferred upon him; for has he not done the very same many times? He laughs at the prostitute cheated of her hire, and at lovers. He laughs at stories of priests which may or may not end happily, because their conduct in erotic matters is so rarely in accordance with their cowls and calling.

Above all, his laughter is aroused by the cunning of women, their sensuality, their fickleness, falsehood, wantonness and gluttony. In most of the fabliaux the whole story turns on an erotic situation and the erotic joke is rarely lacking. The greatest joy is derived from those obscene stories where woman is drawn in the blackest colors pos- sible. This leads us to the conclusion that these stories must usually have been recited in the absence of those censured.

Many of these tales excel in obscenity — and a few of the important ones will now be mentioned. Le sot Chevalier treats of a stupid knight who is instructed by his mother-in-law in his marital duties. In La demoiselle qui ne povoit oir parler de foutre , a young man learns of the daughter of a certain knight who can't hear the word foutre spoken without falling into a faint. He decides to try his luck with her and offers his services to that knight. He is very well received for the reason that he too becomes unconscious whenever he hears lewd words. The girl falls in love with him and they become a happy pair.

De la demoiselle qui neot parler de fotre qui fi'aust mal au cuer treats of a similar situation. For his Bijoux indiscrets , Diderot borrowed from the work of Garin : Le chevalier qui faisoit parler les cous et les culs. This ability was conferred upon a certain noble knight by two fairies in reward for his conduct. The third fairy promises that he will be well received everywhere. The prophesy is fulfilled and he becomes a wealthy man. In De L'Escuiruel , young Robin uses the inexperience of a girl in order to win his love. The wanton life of women is what makes most of the fabliaux so obscene.

These women enjoy foul words and coarse jokes, and delight in cynical doubles entrendre and filthy oaths. It is apparent from many references in the poets Preine and Bedier that women were present at the narration of such obscene tales and farces; and Jean de Conde does not hesitate to put into the mouth of a noble girl obscene words and sentiments which are never uttered today. For these reasons women can very easily be won, and the most threadbare grounds will sufKce, if the poets' words are to be be- lieved.

Thus, a priest gets into the bed of a virgin who struggles against his attack and seeks to call for help. He asks her to remain quiet for no one will now believe in her innocence; she is per- suaded and capitulates. And why not? Girls have the greatest en- joyment in sensual pleasures; and no matter how inexperienced they are, as soon as the first bite is taken of the apple, they are greedy to devour the rest.

A girl will wish to be married only to a young, strong man. Should her wish not be gratified and should her parents compel her to be married to an old man, she will bewail her years. The young woman will then experience as much discomfort in her enforced continence as will one whose husband, whether owing to stupidity or inexperience, does not fulfill his connubial obligations. In these cases of course the lover must suffer.

When a shield-bearer laments the fact that he has slain his love by the intensity of his embraces, another one entreats him for the same death; but this does not happen. And no wonder, for according to the poets one woman can suck the marrow out of the bones of a hundred men before she will be satisfied, and to prove this point they resort to a remarkable exegesis of two verses in the Bible Prov.

Even the nunneries, which should be the seats of pious discipline, are the scenes of the most lascivi- ous lusts. From the newest novice to the abbess, all feel the prick of the flesh. Three nuns have found an obscene picture, accord- ing to another version un vit grossier et plenier, and bring it to the abbess to assign it to one of them. The latter settles the dispute by declaring it to be a miniature from her psalter and keeps it for her- self.

The standing figures in the fabliaux and farces are the priest, husband, wife, maid, procuress, knight, student and serf. The priest is represented as a seducer much more frequently in the fabliaux than in the middle high German tales. He was very much sought after as a lover and there were good grounds for this, as a daughter once explained to her mother. As a result of his inactive and voluptuous life, he became a bon ouvrier en lit.

His wiles to achieve his aims are numerous; but once apprehended in a love scene he is revealed as a ludicrous, tremulous coward. The stories about husbands generally do not deal with the wise, superior husband who sees through the intrigues of his wife and understands how to revenge himself upon the seducer, or how to enjoy some escapades of his own; but rather with the common figure of the cuckolded and henpecked husband.

Generally the husband is old, ugly, stupid, naive or anxious — all of them justification for his wife's extra-marital pleasures. Woman is seldom absent in these tales. Generally her beauty is drawn in all conceivable colors. The breast especially appears to be an important fact of feminine pulchritude : it must be round and full, but not too big. For the designation of more private parts rude words are used. The more beautiful a woman the more she wishes to shine; and it's a short way from her vanity to her fall.

Consequently the unfaithful wife is the usual type in the fabliaux, false, daring, unhesitating, mendacious, always ready for love and always with enough presence of mind to avoid being caught in her escapades. The virgin is usually naive. She knows nothing of love but is quite willing to be taught. This playing with naivete and erotic innocence so attractive to the German and Russian writers, is also employed by the French, but in a much coarser way.

What was the reason for the pessimistic evaluation of women? It certainly was not dictated exclusively by the ascetic notions of the middle ages about the inferiority of women and marriage. At the end of the middle ages such harking back to the Bible or church fathers was rare. What gives these satires their force is their tone of personal experience. Thorough knowledge of the female is at the base of these poets' warnings against marriage — for girls are much different after marriage than they were before.

A favorable judgment about women would be very difficult if we had to depend only upon the meagre words of praise in these tales. Nevertheless, behind this entire catalogue of female vices there slumbers the conviction that the female mind is superior. The constantly reoccurring circumstance that the woman emerges as victorious, after having taken advantage of the unworthy characteristics of the man — his credulity, fear, clumsiness, inertia and jealousy — is an indirect recognition of her power, which one must have a knowledge of, if one is to escape it.

The subject matter of these tales and farces has frequently been traced. Le Grand D'Aussy and Barbazan - Meon have followed, in their editions of the old French fabliaux and contes, the treatment of this subject matter throughout many centuries and in many Romance languages. Bedier has investigated their sources in his Les fabliaux; and his general conclusion is that the raw material does spring from the Orient, but that the French poet has so developed these themes as to make his stories a pure product of the esprit gaulois. After the lapse of time, these dramatized farces were acted out.

They generally consisted of one hundred to three hundred verses. Few of them were ever written down and still fewer printed. All that have come down to us, about pieces, date from the period 1 1 After there appeared the soties, closely related to these farces but having real fools or clowns in the chief role. The Guild of lawyers, the Basoches, was most instrumental in developing the farces.

Miraulmont, their historian, tells us that at set times during the year they would present pieces in which they would ridicule their own individual members and in editions secrettes galantes des maisons particulieres. On Shrove Tuesday they would hold a session and satirize the law just as the choir boys did to the church service at Christmas time.

They would deal with an imagi- nary legal process usually of a very coarse nature. We don't know much about the repertoire of these societies but here are some examples dealing with litigation: Whether a baby bom six months after the wedding can be considered legitimate; a defloration case; the jarce du pect pet where man and wife accuse each other of breaking wind in formal legal manner; or Les femmes qui de- mandent les arresages in which the woman brings suit for non-fulfillment of marital duties but later becomes reconciled to her husband.

Again there is no lack of farces dealing with unfaithful wives. Thus we find the story of a one-eyed man whose wife covers that one eye while her lover escapes; and then that of the fool whose wife is confined much too early. The cunning tricks of amorous women play a great role in these farces, and there is no dearth of obscenity, but on the whole there is more of the latter and less of wit in the Germanic productions of that time than in these French farces or in the Italian bejfe or burle tales.

The gallantries of the clerics were also dramatized. In general it may be said that only a small fraction of the farces can be regarded as dramatized fabliaux which were but little used. However, the prim- itive joy in piquant and panurgic situations is not to be mistaken in them. ONE must not judge too harshly the licentiousness of the people, for joy in erotic matters has been found among the high and the low in the gray mists of antiquity as well as in the present.

The higher classes of that time were no exception. The plays which were publicly produced in France during the reign of Henry IX were exceedingly offensive. Thus, The fimny tale of the physician who cures all diseases and makes the nose of the child of a pregnant ivonian; or the boisterous and merry tale which describes the dispute over a girl between a young monk and an old gendarme, held before the God Cupid. At the time of Louis xi and Charles the Bold there were representations comparable to those of antiquity — with absolutely naked girls participating in scenes like the Judgment of Paris, the History of Noah, etc.

Schnaase reports some of the doings at a party that Philip the Good gave at Lille in on the occasion of a summons to a crusade issued by Pope Pius 11, with all the accompanying revelry and license. At one end of the board was a naked girl covered only by her long hair and a thin veil, whose breasts poured forth Hypocras a favorite drink; and on the table there was a naked boy who scattered rose water in an even more naive fashion.

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The paintings and the tapestries of the rich showed the same scenes. William Pepin , a preacher of the fifteenth century has this to say: 'The paintings and tapestries frequently display such disgustingly lewd matters that passions are aroused in even the most tranquil dispositions. These are usually found in the castles of the nobility. Would to Heaven that none were even seen in the residences of prelates and the clergy. But I cannot deny that I have even seen certain lewd paintings in the interior of a famous church which was decked out this way in honor of Easter.

I had them removed and carried them elsewhere. Sauval says that one could see represented in them gods and goddesses, as well as men and women indulging in unnatural and horrible excesses. In the regent queen caused many of these paintings to be destroyed; and the loss amounted to more than half a million francs. The handwritten prayer books were decorated with miniatures; and collectors saved those which portrayed offensive matters. Brantome 's writings constitute an inexhaustible source for evaluating the moral conditions of the higher society of that time.

He writes: "The gallery of Count du Chateau-Vilain , known as Seigneur Adjacet , was visited by a horde of women in the company of their admirers. Their eyes were entranced by the splendid and rare paintings that hung in this gallery. They saw a very pretty painting which portrayed beautiful women at the bath embracing one another and doing one another various other kinds of love service; upon observing which, even the coldest nun or hermitess could become ardent.

One of the women whom I knew suddenly turned to her lover and kissed him excitedly, intoxicated with the amorous madness depicted on the wall: 'I can't stand it any longer. Quick, into the carriage and home. I am burning! Come on! We will extinguish the fire. All around, and even inside, it had delicate but clear representations of some figures of Aretino and many scenes of co-habiting animals. During the feasts that this prince gave, the beaker would be passed around to the women who had to drink from it and who found great amusement in it.

Among them were certain ladies who had two or three or more lovers each, and these 32 exemplified 27 postures of Aretino. The pictures were perfect likenesses — some fully naked, some in the same clothes and coiffure that they always wore; and the same was true of the men represented. In short this book was splendidly made. It cost about nine hundred thalens, and the drawings were colored. Obscene amusements Were the order of the day with the gallant ladies of the court, as contemporary writings demonstrate.

Something more should be said concerning knighthood. This institution possessed indubitable merits but it also was disfigured by many defects which are not at all in accordance with the notions commonly held about it. For generally it is supposed that knighthood and the Minnesingers were based on, and culminated in, the highest degree of reverence for women. Yet it was anything but that. To be sure, the poet-lover of a given lady regarded himself as a vassal of his love, and assumed the obligations of this vassaldom — and its privileges. The lady love was the feudal lord and he served her in the expectation that his services would finally be recompensed with the desired, ultimate boon.

In this concept of mutuality there lay a deeply immoral moment which was soon to become the point of attack for the annihilating criticism of knighthood. Since this mutuality was nearly always carried into the realm of the sexual, the homage to woman soon was lost. Because there had to result a gradual demolition of all marital relationships, and a revaluation of all moral conceptions concerning marital fidelity and purity of family life.

This strong emphasis on sexual matters was aided by the thorough occupation with love in all its phases which characterizes the didactic poetry of that time. In the Minnesongs for example the preponderant theme is the corporeal attraction of the lady who is being solicited, and the joys of physical love. No attention is paid to the spiritual qualities of the woman, who indeed has value only as an object for serving man's insatiable passions. Consequently, pleasure in woman is confined to the externals; if she possesses physical merits these are glorified by her knight in songs of appropriate praise.

But what if these corporeal attractions decay? Then they become disesteemed, as are from the start all those women who have not been dowered with beauty, and are cast upon the junk heap. The Minnesongs can be pronounced to be immoral in the wide usage of the term, if only for the reason that it is always a married woman who is the mistress of the poet's heart. And since there was no lack of jealous husbands at this time, the singing troubadour was frequently compelled to use fictitious names and allegorical signs in order to conceal the identity of his lady.

It is this circumstance that to a considerable degree spoils the naturalness and truth of the experiences in these poems. But this reserve does not extend to the physical charms of the beloved which were always placed in the foreground and celebrated with utter candor. Her most intimate beauties and private favors were poetized and revealed to an interested world, and what woman could remain deaf to music so flattering to her ear!